Before I was gloriously born again (some twenty-three years ago), I did not believe that all of the Bible is true. And after I was saved, I still did not believe some of the Bible (the book of Genesis) because it contradicted prevailing scientific thought. I was perplexed: how could my God Who saved me from eternal damnation, Who claims to never lie or mislead, and Whose Gospel is even understandable to children, present "unscientific" (or difficult to interpret) information in the first book of the Bible? Thus, I presumed that the book of our origins is merely symbolic, and not to be taken literally.
And yet, Jesus spoke of a literal Noah's Flood which covered the entire earth and destroyed all humanity, save the eight people on the Ark. Was Jesus lying? I think not. The geology of the earth actually is a beautiful mosaic of rock formations which confirms the historical veracity of Noah's Flood. God even gives a general account of the dynamics involved during the Flood in Psalms 104:5-9. (The mountains rose at the close of the Flood, as the ocean basins deepened, and the water slid off the continents into the current, deepened ocean basins.)
The development of the "races" of humanity and the natural selection within the respective kinds of animals (resulting in the animal "species") superiorly conforms to God's account of origins (particularly when contrasted with scientifically bankrupt Darwinian notions). The "races" of humanity can interbreed; therefore, according to the laws of genetics, they are from common ancestors (the eight people on Noah's Ark). Likewise, lions and tigers have been interbred, which proves that they are the offspring of shared ancestors (perhaps there were only two of the cat kind on Noah's Ark).
Thus, only about 20,000 animals needed to have been on the Ark, not the millions that Darwinists ignorantly (and mockingly) believe would have been necessitated. These animal kinds reproduced after the Great Flood, and moved off into the new ecological niches that resulted from the varying climates and terrains of the post-Flood world. In isolated breeding groups, the respective animal kinds manifested previously unseen physical characteristics (because of recessive genes becoming dominant). Some of these characteristics were beneficial in some environments, like long hair in cold climates. (The Ice Age occurred in the eight centuries following the Flood.) Therefore, the gene for long hair became dominant in cold climates. Similarly, humans with lighter skin survived more successfully in colder climates, as darker skinned people did in warmer climates.
Such is the extent of natural selection. Animal kinds have never "evolved" to become new kinds of creatures (such as monkeys to men). There is, however, great variation within the various kinds of creatures (like llamas and camels, which can interbreed, and thus, are of a single kind; and like buffaloes and cows, which can interbreed, and thus, are of another single kind). Darwinian evolution presumes that mutations add genetic information, and thus, add new and beneficial physical characteristics to creatures. However, mutations actually destroy or merely re-arrange genetic sequences.
Mutations do occasionally cause distortions of creatures' genetic make-ups which fortuitously help the creatures' survivability (such as web-feet of polar bears for swimming, and short wings for bugs on windy islands). Nevertheless, these mutations are not adding information which, according to misguided Darwinists, will result in new animal kinds after many subsequent mutations.
Much of the rock strata that we see in the geology of the continents are flat lying sedimentary layers (sedimentary means deposited in a watery environment). These layers are vast in area, covering states, countries, and occasionally entire continents. And when they don't cover entire continents, they grade into other sedimentary rock-types, thus, proving that they were deposited at the bottom of one body of water, Noah's Flood!
These layers were laid down during the Flood and some were subsequently bent, contorted or folded during mountain uplifts while the layers were still wet and soft. Had these layers been deposited over many millions of years (as Darwinists insist) they should have, long before the mountain uplifts, been lithified (hardened). Therefore, when the contortion of the sedimentary layers ensued, these hard rocks should have cracked. However, they did not crack, thus proving that they were still wet and soft when the folding of the layers began (at the end of the Flood).
Entombed within the sedimentary strata of the continents are billions of fossilized animals. These animals must have been rapidly entombed within the Flood-caused sedimentary layers because, had they laid at the bottom of a body of water for many years as sediments slowly built up around them (like Darwinists opine), scavengers, disarticulation because of water, and bacterial degradation would have eliminated any sign of the creature long before it could be gradually covered up by sediments and uplifted above water (for drying into rock). In other words, there would be nothing left to fossilize.
What is observed in the fossil record is confirmatory evidence of a massive Flood catastrophe that rapidly engulfed billions of creatures in sediments which then quickly dried out (because the Floodwaters slid off into the deepened ocean basins). Predictably, the vast majority of fossilized creatures are marine creatures. The more intelligent and mobile land creatures were usually able to escape the early phases of the Flood, as they fled to higher ground. Eventually, they were drowned by the Floodwater, but most floated, bloated, rotted, were eaten by scavengers and bacteria, resulting in nothing to be fossilized.
Darwinists maintain that the general trend in the sedimentary strata, of simple marine creatures (deep in the strata) and fishes (shallower in the strata) with amphibians (still shallower in the strata) and reptiles (yet shallower in the strata) and mammals (generally shallowest in the strata), is reflective of the evolution of these creatures over millions of years. In reality, this general trend of fossils in the strata is reflective of the sequence of entombments that one would expect from a global flood catastrophe: a countless number of dense bottom dwellers first (like clams and snails), followed by lesser numbers of mobile water dwellers (like fish), followed by still lesser numbers of shore creatures (amphibians), followed by still lesser numbers of relatively immobile land creatures (reptiles), followed by the more mobile and intelligent (and therefore rarely fossilized) land creatures (mammals).
The sources of this Floodwater are disclosed in Genesis 7:11-12. The "fountains of the deep" vented massive volumes of water along with lava (roughly 70% of lava's content is water) from the bowels of the earth through oceanic crustal plate rift (separation) zones which run through the oceanic crust of the earth like the seam on a baseball. (The forty days and forty nights of rain was perhaps this vented water from below that shot high into the air and then fell on the earth, until the Floodwater deepened to the point where this venting was carbureted.)
As the water and magma burst through these crustal plate rift zones, the earth's crustal plates began to move, with some soon crashing into others (and thus, folded the sediments to form mountains), and others diving under some others (with volcanoes resulting from these diving plates' heating and melting at depth and rising through the crust), and some moving away from others (like at the rift zones). The plates of the earth's crust are like the shell pieces on a well-cracked hard-boiled egg.
At the close of the Flood year, the oceanic crust sank down into the voids that were formed after the water and magma had vacated through the oceanic crustal rift zones. Concurrently, the continents were thickening because of sedimentary deposition and mountain uplifts, so the waters slid of the continents into the deepening ocean basins (as described in Psalms 104:5-9). There you have it, all of the Bible is true, including God's account of the global flood catastrophe, Noah's Flood.
Over 500 tribes from all over the world have ancestral legends of this global flood. What are the odds that disparate people groups from all over the globe would have similar legends of a global encompassing flood? The odds are astronomical. Obviously, the earliest ancestors (the eight on the Ark) of these tribes had an intimate knowledge of this catastrophe.
Because the Floodwaters came from the earth's interior, the post-Flood ocean was much warmer than today's ocean. This warmer water evaporated at a much higher rate than today, and thus, massive cloud formations resulted. (Rampant volcanism at the close of the Flood further intensified this cloud density.) The Ice Age began at this time (about 2300 B.C.) and ended about 1500 B.C. Legends of the ancient Irish and Aryans and maps from post-Flood mariners confirm this fact.
During the Ice Age, sea level was lower than today because so much water was tied up as ice in the northern latitudes and on Antarctica, thus, land-bridges connected Asia with North America and, perhaps, with much of the East Indies. Therefore, the post-Flood and post-Babel tribes were able to disperse throughout the earth with their knowledge of the Flood. Hence, we can now understand how 500 tribes from around the globe can have the same ancestral knowledge of this flood, Noah's Flood!
The "cavemen" lived along the southern edge of the Ice Age icepack during roughly five centuries after the Flood. A lack of vitamin D (because of slight exposure to sunlight), their rugged existence, and the longer life-spans of the post-Flood people caused the slight physical variations from "modern men" that we see in "Neanderthal Men" and "Homo Erectus" men. Remember, people lived many hundreds of years before the Flood, and their longevities gradually decreased in the ten to fifteen generations after the Flood. Interestingly and corroboratively, many ancient historians mention the longer life-spans of their distant ancestors, Some of these historians were Hestiaeus, Mochus, Berosus, Manetho, Hieronymus, Hesiod, Hecateus, Ephorus, and Nicolaus.
The carbon 14 dating method, as well as the radiogenic rock-dating methods (such as the uranium-lead method) are fraught with internal inconsistencies, unknowable presuppositions, and Darwinian biases that cause their results to be viewed with skepticism. The carbon 14 dates of organic material, from near the time of the Flood, show greatly exaggerated ages because of greater amounts of carbon 12 in the atmosphere than today (from the thousands of volcanoes), and because of the earth's much greater magnetic field strength at that time, which caused less carbon 14 formation in the post-Flood atmosphere. Radiogenic rock-dates for lava rocks are bogus because the are predicated upon three unknowable presuppositions: the "knowledge" of initial isotope ratios, the "knowledge" that radioactive decay rates have not changed, and the "knowledge" that radioactive material has not been leached out of dated rocks by groundwater.
At current erosion rates, the continents should have been leveled to sea-level within only 15 million years; and yet, there are rocks within the continental geology that are allegedly 300 times that old. At current erosion rates, the oceans should have completely filled up with sediment within 100 million years, and yet the oceans are purportedly over 30 times that old. Only 20,000 years ago, the earth's magnetic field would have been so strong that it would have generated such heat as to melt the earth's crust!
Christians and skeptics, we are dealing here with a "young" earth. And of course, as the Bible plainly relates, a "young" universe, as well. The early Church fathers believed the literal Genesis account (except a very few, such as Origen, who was heavily influenced by Greek philosophy). Many Church fathers didn't even mention a "Genesis controversy" because it wasn't an issue to them. Some 1700 years after Jesus' resurrection, "enlightened" scientists (such as Darwin, Lyell, and Hutton) began to propose theories that contradict Genesis history. Their "theories" erode the credibility of the Gospel to this day.
Darwinists and many Christians believe that the distant stars (which are many trillions of miles away) must be billions of years old because it would take billions of years for light from the stars to reach us, in order that we see them with the naked eye. However, Einstein's Theory of General Relativity allows a greatly accelerated speed of light and greatly accelerated formation and aging rates of stellar entities (because of gravitational time dilation) during the first few days of the Creation, as matter expanded outward and coalesced during the Creation of the cosmos. The "Big Bang" theory actually violates logic and science (for more details on this, and the other subjects mentioned herein, read the book OLD EARTH? WHY NOT!).
The advanced engineering acumen displayed in the buildings of the ancient Egyptian, Sumerian, Indus, Toltec, Druid, pre- Inca, and Angkor (Cambodia) civilizations reveal an awesome degree of mathematical skill. The ancient and astoundingly precise navigational maps, that were utilized in the production of medieval maps which show the ancient shorelines (before the Ice Age had fully taken hold) of Greenland and Antarctica (which supposedly was not discovered until 1818), were masterfully produced through the utilization of the "Celtic Cross" (which is a wheel, affixed to a cross, and oriented by a plumb-line). An ancient version of this instrument was discovered at the Great Pyramid of Giza.
Pagan histories are replete with Biblical names. Egypt is known as the land of Ham. Ethiopia is known as the land of Cush. The ancient Greeks considered their first patriarch to be Javan. The Levant (the Holy Land) is called the land of Shem by the Arabs. Puser-Asshur I (Asshur) was the first king of Assyria. The pagan Vikings and Saxons recorded Noe (Noah) and Seskef (Japheth) as their first two kings. The ancient Elamite civilization's namesake is Elam. Sidon founded the Phoenician town of that name. Middle Easterners say that Nimrod was their first king, and the legend of the Tower of Babel fiasco is known by people groups from all of the continents.
These people had zero interest in copying Biblical names because, more often than not, they were rivals of the ancient Hebrews (whose namesake is Eber). And yet, these Biblical names abound in these pagan ancient ancestries because eight people came off Noah's Ark and repopulated the earth as described in the Table of Nations (Genesis 10). The corroborative evidence of Genesis is truly overwhelming. Nothing in Genesis has ever proved to be inaccurate, consequently, Genesis is the prime "road map" for modern archaeological endeavors in the Middle East.
Noah's Flood occurred around 2400 B.C. Assuming that the first five generations after Noah averaged 10 children per couple (which is not too generous of a figure, considering the fact that these people lived to be several hundred years of age), many thousands of people lived at the time of the Tower of Babel, and millions of people lived at the time of Abraham.
Why do so many of us question Genesis veracity? It is because we have been intimidated by mainstream science, due to our general ignorance of scientific, historical and anthropological facts. It is time that we fortify our intellects with these facts so that we will have ready answers for all the questions that skeptics and well-meaning Christians pose. I confidently await questions from doubters, seekers, and sarcastic atheists. It is great fun to answer them with sound science and irrefutable logic (such as the mathematical "impossibility" that the 48 major Old Testament prophecies regarding specifics of Jesus' incarnation would be fulfilled, as they were, as documented by unassailable historical factors and circumstances).
Millions of us became born again Christians despite the Darwinian dogma that has been forced on us by "higher" education and biased mass-media: such is the awesome power of God's grace, love, and persistence. However, I can't help but believe that many millions more will come to faith in Jesus Christ when they understand that all of the Bible is true, including the foundational book which delineates our need of the Gospel, the book of Genesis.
James I. Nienhuis
author of: OLD EARTH?